Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Analysis of Charlotte Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper

Yellow Wallpaper Annotated Bibliography Frye, C.B. Using Literature in Health Care: Reflections on The Yellow Wallpaper. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. (32: 7). 1998. 829.33. Print. Most people who wrote about The Yellow Wallpaper do so from the perspective of a literary scholar. This however is written by someone in the health care field. C.B. Frye says that fiction can impact the larger world; in this case it impacted mental health and the work of Gillmans doctor, S Weir Mitchell. Although the short story acts as a testimony from a patient, there is either no or very little information from the perspective of the health care community about why the rest cure was used. This article provides an altogether unique perspective on the short story. Instead of examining it as a work of literature, Frye reads The Yellow Wallpaper as an autobiographic document about a mental health patient. By doing this, he provides the literary scholar a unique viewpoint on the topic. Gilbert, Kelly. The Yellow Wallpaper: an Autobiography of Emotions by Charlotte Perkins Gilman. Print. Charlotte Perkins Gillmans own experiences with mental illness are well documented. She herself was subjected to the rest cure which the character in The Yellow Wallpaper also has to endure, which drives her crazy. In this article, Gilbert explores the significance of Gillmans story and the changes that it began in terms of womens mental health. For the first time many people came toShow MoreRelatedAn Analysis of Charlotte Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper1239 Words   |  5 PagesWhat if something as simple as a pattern could cause someone so much grief, attention and unwanted thoughts that it could eventually causes them to slowly go insane? In Charlotte Gilmans short story, The Yellow Wallpaper she uses the techniques of foreshadowing, personification, simile, and symbolism, in order to acknowledge how easily humans are convinced and influenced in their daily lives. Ones own perspective on themselves can quickly be changed as they are exposed to different thoughtsRead MoreAnalysis of Charlotte Gilman’s Story The Yellow Wallpaper711 Words   |  3 Pages Charlotte Gilman’s short story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is centered on the deteriorating psychological condition of the female narrator. As a woman in a male dominating society in the 19th century, the narrator has no control over her life. This persistence eventually evolves into her madness. The insanity is triggered by her change in attitude towards her husband, the emergent obsession with the wallpaper and the projection of herself as the women behind the wallpaper. The â€Å"rest cure† which wasRead MoreAn Analysis of Charlotte Perkins Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper693 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿1. The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Gilman (1899) contains elements that could be construed as a feminist take on a paternalistic society or a gothic ghost story. When the writer states that  ¦ he hardly lets me stir without direction, I cant imagine anythi ng more claustrophobic. Given the period in which this is written, it makes sense that this attitude is fueled by the endemic paternalism of the time. When the heads with bulging eyes began to appear in the wallpaper, as if theseRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper, By Harriet Beecher Stowe1603 Words   |  7 PagesThe Yellow Wallpaper is a feminist piece of literature that analyzed women’s struggle in the 1900s, such as medical diagnosis and women’s roles. Over the years, women struggled to attain independence and freedom. In order to achieve these liberties, they were females who paved the way and spoke out about these issues to secure equal rights for women. In addition, these powerful females used their vulnerability to challenge the male domination through their literary work. The Yellow Wallpaper is aRead MoreCultural Analysis : The Yellow Wallpaper927 Words   |  4 PagesCultural Analysis: The Yellow Wallpaper Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is a short story told from the perspective of a woman who’s believed to be â€Å"crazy†. The narrator believes that she is sick while her husband, John, believes her to just be suffering from a temporary nervous depression. The narrator’s condition worsens and she begins to see a woman moving from behind the yellow wallpaper in their bedroom. The wallpaper captures the narrator’s attention and initial drives herRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper By Charlotte Perkins Gilman846 Words   |  4 Pagesjourney of the admirable story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† created by Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s, gave the thought whether or not the outcome was influenced by female oppression and feminism. Female oppression and feminist encouraged a series of women to have the freedom to oppose for their equal rights. Signified events in the story â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† resulted of inequ ality justice for women. Charlotte Perkins Gilman gave the reader different literary analysis to join the unjustifiable lifestyleRead More What Others Say about The Yellow Wallpaper1572 Words   |  7 PagesWhat Others Say about The Yellow Wallpaper      Ã‚  Ã‚   The Yellow Wallpaper is a short story written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in 1890 and eventually published in 1892 in the New England Magazine and in William Dean Howells collection, Great Modern American Stories (Shumaker 94). The story was original not only because of its subject matter, but also because it is written in the form of a loosely connected journal. It follows the narrators private thoughts which become increasingly more confusingRead MoreEffects Of Repressing The Yellow Wallpaper 1520 Words   |  7 PagesThe Yellow Wallpaper In her story, The Yellow Wallpaper, Charlotte Perkins Gilman expresses exasperation towards the separate male and female roles expected of her society, and the evident repressed rights of a woman versus the active duties of a man. The story depicts the methods taken to cure a woman of her psychological state during Gilman’s time, and delineates the dominant cure of the time period, â€Å"the resting cure,† which encouraged the restraint of the imagination (The Yellow Wallpaper: LookingRead More Critical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins1179 Words   |  5 PagesCritical Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by Charlotte Perkins Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† is a detailed account of the author’s battle with depression and mental illness. Gilman’s state of mental illness and delusion is portrayed in this narrative essay. Through her account of this debilitating illness, the reader is able to relate her behavior and thoughts to that of an insane patient in an asylum. She exhibits the same typeRead MoreThe Yellow Wallpaper Essay : Importance Of Identity And Self Expression1707 Words   |  7 PagesThe Importance of Identity and Self Expression in The Yellow Wallpaper In the article â€Å"‘Too Terribly Good to Be Printed’: Charlotte Gilman’s ‘The Yellow Wallpaper,’† Conrad Shumaker explains the genius of â€Å"The Yellow Wallpaper† and how its themes reflect the patriarchal society of the time period. Shumaker identifies one theme as the detriment of suppressing the narrator’s sense of self and that â€Å"by trying to ignore and repress her imagination, in short, John eventually brings about the very circumstance

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Vietnam War A Long And Hard Battle - 1069 Words

Joe Glaser U.S History Sara Nefzger Historical Analysis two 4/20/2015 The Vietnam War a long and hard fought battle that lasted from November, 1954 and ended on April 30, 1975, but the United States didn’t get involved until June of 1965. (Vietnam War Statistics) The likely collapse of the South Vietnamese army and the fear for the spread of communism is why America joined in on this war, but joining the war was extremely controversial. Many people believe that the United States involvement In the Vietnam War should never have happened. I believe that since North Vietnam and South Vietnam internal conflicts didn’t affect America, the cost of the war was exponential compared to previous wars, it was an unwinnable battle, and the notional conscience disagreed with what we were doing, that is obvious entering the war was a bad decision. Before World War two, Vietnam was a French colony, and during the war the country was overrun by the Japanese. Eventually the Japanese would retreat and the people of Vietnam established their own government . However after the war, Vietnam was split into two pieces, South Vietnam was given back to the French and the North was left to the non-communist Chinese. Eventually the Chinese would leave North Vietnam, and that is when Ho Chi minh era started, but the French then announced later that they were going to reclaim the north. They tried to win the over the people of the north by offering them independence, but the north refused, whichShow MoreRelatedAustralias Involvement in the Vietnam War888 Words   |  4 PagesAustralia had quite a large involvement in the Vietnam War and it is still considered an important part of our history, as it is the longest Australia has been involved in any war. We were involved in the war from 1962 to 1972 and roughly 60000 Australian men and women served there. Our initial involvement was with military advisors to support the South Vietnamese army and then that escalated to sending fighting troops, as it was more difficult for the South Vietnamese arm y to defeat the Viet CongRead MoreThe Battle Of La Drang Valley748 Words   |  3 Pagesbootcamp the Vietnam war ended. The Vietnam war was a fight to end communism in northern Vietnam so it would not spread to southern Vietnam. Then in 1955 president Dwight D. Eisenhower pledged his support to Diem and southern Vietnam. The Vietnam war lasted about sixteen years thousands of people lost their lives including American and Vietnamese soldiers they were either declared MIA or killed. The Battle of La Drang Valley (October 26-November 27, 1965) This was the first battle between theRead MoreWhy did the United States Withdraw From the Vietnam War?1503 Words   |  7 PagesWhy did the United States Withdraw From the Vietnam War? The United States withdrew from the Vietnam War for several reasons. The Army had to fight in unfamiliar territory, was lacking in moral, were not prepared for the conditions, could not shut down the Ho Chi Minh Trail, and were untrained to respond to guerilla warfare. This combination of disadvantages and the loss of public support led to the United States withdrawing from Vietnam. The United States Army was forced to fight in a new land thatRead MoreThe Vietnam War Of Vietnam859 Words   |  4 Pageshappened to everyone in the past called the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War is a war that between the Southern and Northern zones of Vietnam. In the early 1960’s, the United States was very worried about the situation in the South Vietnam. Therefore, the president Lyndon B. Johnson were startin g to draft so many young people in the country to combat issues in the war with Vietnam. However, the Vietnam War were proved to be a common topic were to fight against the war, combat the issue of drafting about freedomRead MorePsychological And Emotional Effects Of War On Soldiers1500 Words   |  6 PagesEffects of War on Soldiers We have all seen or read about the political and social upheavals caused by war. Some may have even experienced it first-hand. Throughout history war has had negative psychological implications on those effected. However, there is no greater negative impact of war than the psychological and emotional turmoil that it causes individual soldiers. To narrow down the scope of these psychological effects, I have chosen to focus on the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War was, in myRead MoreWhy Did The Vietnam War Start?1064 Words   |  5 Pagesactually happened vietnam? How did the Vietnam war start? What happen before Vietnam war? Was Vietnam a stabilize country before Vietnam war? And how did we rebuild?. All these question I’ve been wondering about my own country. Did you know that Vietnam actually had a More than 30 year of war ? Vietnam was like a warzone with an environment that smell like blood, gunpowder. It all started out as the France making Vietnam one of their colony. Than Japan come in trying to compete Vietnam over France. ThanRead MorePsychological And Emotional Effects Of War On Soldiers1436 Words   |  6 PagesEffects of War on Soldiers We have all seen or read about the political and social upheavals caused by war. Some may have even experienced it first-hand. Throughout history war has had negative psychological implications on those effected. However, there is no greater negative impact of war than the psychological and emotional turmoil that it causes individual soldiers. To narrow down the scope of these psychological effects, I have chosen to focus on the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War was, in myRead MoreVietnam And The Vietnam War1711 Words   |  7 Pages â€Æ' The Vietnam War was one of the bloodiest wars in the history of Vietnam. Vietnam use to be a peaceful country until the idea of communism started spreading across Vietnam. Many wanted to stay democratic but saw what happened to the Germans and started to lean towards communism. Many also wanted to stay democratic and still had it hopes high that it will soon get their lives and economy back on track. It later exploded into a huge argument and then leads to a civil war spurring between NorthRead MorePolitical And Social Upheavals Caused By War1533 Words   |  7 Pagescaused by war. Some may have even experienced it first-hand. Throughout history war has had negative psychological implications on those effected. However, there is no greater negative impact of war than the psychological and emotional turmoil that it causes individual soldiers. To narrow down the scope of these psychological effects, I have chosen to focus on the U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam War during the period 1962 to 1973. The Vietnam War was, in my opinion, the first war that reallyRead More January, 1968: Keh Sanh, The Tet Offensive, and the Unraveling of an American Presidency 1740 Words   |  7 PagesWhen President Johnson delivered his State of the Union Address to Congress on January 17, 1968 he spoke of the war in Vietnam with optimism. He listed the many military accomplishments to date, mentioned the word â€Å"progress† five times, discussed a â€Å"fruitful† visit with the pope, and spoke with a tone and tenor that suggested an imminent, peaceful resolution (â€Å"Johnson’s Annual Message†). Not three months later – in a similarly important speech to the American people – Johnson stoically announced

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Lust in Homers The Odyssey and Aristophanes’ Lysistrata...

Lust in Homers The Odyssey and Aristophanes’ Lysistrata Lust is defined as an intense longing or a sexual desire. It is a common theme in literature; particularly in classic Greek literature. The reason it is so prevalent in literature is that is prevalent in our daily lives. Everyone lusts after something or someone. It is an interesting topic to examine closely, and classic literature is an excellent medium for such an investigation. Two works I have studied, in which lust is a theme, are an epic, Homers The Odyssey, and a play, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata. In both The Odyssey and Lysistrata, lust is a theme that plays a major role in the course of the story, making the stories similar, but very different. The Odyssey is an epic†¦show more content†¦She is certainly not in love with him, but she wants him. Thus, she makes the time pass very quickly so that Odysseus will stay with her. The second instance of lust occurs in Book XII when Odysseus is washed up on the island of Ogygia, after just barely surviving the perils of Scylla and Charybdis. His whole crew has perished, and he is alone. He is found by Calypsos handmaidens. At first Calypso treats Odysseus well. However, when Odysseus asks for a boat to leave the island, Calypso tells him that he may never leave the island. Calypso lusts for Odysseus so much that she holds him captive for many years. Odysseus, however, does not feel this lust for her. At this point in the epic, he wants nothing more than to reach his home and his wife, whom he loves very much. Finally, the gods tell Calypso that is time to release Odysseus, and she obeys. The Odyssey is a tale of growth and development. Odysseus was, in a sense, defeated by the power of Circe. However, later in the story, as he continued to grow and change, he was able to be strong when faced with Calypso. He did not forget his goal of getting home as he had previously done. The comedy, Lysistrata, is based almost entirely around the theme of lust. The story tells of a war among the Greeks. Lysistrata, whose name means she who dissolves armies, is the wife of one of the soldiers. She, along with the other wives, is sick and tired of her

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Clark Kent Essay Example For Students

Clark Kent Essay Moulmein High and Smallville both have a target audience that consist predominantly of teenagers. Both the programmes cover issues regarding friendship and love two issues that teenagers often grapple with. Moulmein High is a show about a group of secondary students and their constant struggle with teenage woes. The show tries to reflect the way society perceives todays teenagers to be. Singaporean teenagers are viewed as being very open-minded with a strong preference for Western culture instead of their traditional Asian culture. The characters in the show reflect that very well by trying to speak with a slight American lilt, using American colloquial and dressing (in clothing other than their school uniform) like a typical American teenager. Smallville on the other hand, is an adaptation of the age-old classic Superman. Every episode shows how the main character, Clark Kent tries to find balance between leading a normal life, and using his special gift to save people in need. Surprisingly, Smallville is different as compared to typical American teenage programmes in its definition of beauty. Normally, the main actor would be blonde, blue eyed and a football captain of the school. Similarly, the main actress would be blonde, blue eyed and a head cheerleader in the school. However, in Smallville, both the main actor and actress have dark hair and eyes. Furthermore, the main actress is of mixed heritage. The irony of these two programmes is that the local programme is trying to be more westernised whereas the Western programme is trying to break away from conformity. However, the two programmes do share certain similarities. One of the episodes in Smallville showed how an overweight girl suffered under the insults of her peers. Similarly, an episode in Moulmein High depicted a female character struggling with anorexia. These two episodes show that both locally and in the West, the ideal womans body is slim, or rather skinny. Also, both programmes show that the teenagers have respect for their parents because they obey their parents wishes. The difference is that in Smallville, the teenagers can talk to their parents and treat them like friends. If there are disagreements, the parents and teenagers would discuss and talk things through unlike in Moulmein High where there is no discussion because the parents claim they know what is right and best. Therefore, although the value of respect is reflected in both programmes, Smallville depicts the fact that respect is earned whereas in Moulmein High, respect towards parents seems like a norm. In both Smallville and Moulmein High, couples are seen being intimate and fond of public displays of affection. This reflects the open mindedness and bold behaviour of todays (both in the local and foreign context) teenagers as compared to the past generation, where any form of affection only happened behind closed doors. As an Asian and living in an Asian society, Western media can influence our perceptions and behaviour. However, even if Singapore is considered modernised and in the forefront of economic and business trends, there are still things deemed normal in Western culture that our society will frown upon. For example, although Singaporeans are exposed to many Western films and movies, public displays of affection should still be kept to a minimal. Holding hands in public is acceptable but kissing or cuddling in a public place will either draw stares or make onlookers look away in embarrassment. Our society supports the fact that teenagers should be respectful towards their elders.

Monday, April 13, 2020

Internal and External Security for The Holiday Inn Online Reservation System

Introduction A hotel reservation system is an online method of booking hotel rooms; the people booking the rooms, who in most cases are travelers and tourists, normally do so by means of an online security system to protect their financial information and other private details.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Internal and External Security for The Holiday Inn Online Reservation System specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Online reservations have a number of benefits: they save travellers time and resources, and they can book from anywhere and at any time, provided they can have access to the Internet (Nyheim, McFadden, Connolly, Paiva, 2005). Although a hotel reservation system is quite beneficial, it can be affected by internal and external security issues. The scope of this paper is to examine the security issues affecting the hotel reservation system at the Holiday Inn. The paper also outlines the strategies , which Holiday Inn can use to manage its security issues. Privacy Issues at Holiday Inn’s There are a number of privacy issues, both internal and external, which users of the application system can experience as they book for hotel reservations. The reservation system used at the Holiday Inn is based on hotel management software, which is prone to a number of privacy issues due to the fact that it uses the internet. The internal issues comprise threats propagated by malicious users, who mostly come from within the organization, while the external ones comprise threats such as viruses,which are initiated by outsiders. Such serious internal and external privacy issues can make the organization lose most of its customers; consequently, it is important to set up all the necessary security measures to avert any privacy issues (Nyheim, McFadden, Connolly, Paiva, 2005). The possible internal privacy threats that may occur to customers who make their bookings using the online reser vation system at the Holiday Inn include: malicious users and fraudsters. Malicious users refer to individuals who break into the organization’s computers without due permission from its administration department. Malicious users are mainly insiders who can manage to get access to the organization’s IT system as a result of the internet, which offers a broad connectivity of the hotel’s booking system. Malicious users attempt to break into the information system of the organization almost on a daily basis. The damages caused by such users, when they manage to break into the hotel’s system, are consequential to the organization as well as to its customers (Nyheim, McFadden, Connolly, Paiva, 2005).Advertising Looking for assessment on it? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fraud or theft is another internal threat to the privacy of the customers who apply for reservations at the hotel using its online ap plication system. Holiday Inn’s computer systems are at times exploited by fraudsters, thanks to the automation of the earlier traditional fraudulent methods. Such fraud occurs mainly when dishonest employees use computers to float small amounts of money from accounts of customer who make large deposits. During such fraud, the financial information belonging to the hotel’s customers is put at high risk, as it can be accessed by the fraudsters; consequently, such internal threats interfere with the privacy of the customers by divulging their financial information (Tesone, 2006). Apart from the internal threats, the reservation system used at the Holiday Inn is equally exposed to external risks, which are caused by hackers and viruses. Hackers are remote users who can access the hotel’s information system without authorization from its management. Hackers have smart tactics, which they use to bypass firewalls, encryption, filters, and other security measures insta lled by the organization to safeguard its information system. They focus on the networks of the organization to gain access to information that they know is valuable, but heavily guarded. If hackers gain access to the hotel’s IT system, they can interfere with the customers’ personal and financial information (Tesone, 2006). The second external threat to the privacy of the customers’ information is the existence of viruses in the hotel’s information and technology system. Viruses are programs that can harm the organization’s IT system by freezing or deleting important information from its computers. Viruses gain entry into personal computers through infected portable disks, email attachments and shared local networks. When viruses attack the organization’s network system, it can lose all or most of the important files, including personal details and financial information of the customers (Tesone, 2006). Threats – Internal and External Computer threats, which include internal and external attacks, can interfere with the hardware that is used to store vital resources of the organization; consequently, such threats can cause the organization serious hardware and software losses. Internal threats refer to attacks that are initiated by insiders of a firm, who mostly comprise unhappy and dishonest staff.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Internal and External Security for The Holiday Inn Online Reservation System specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Most employees who want become internal attackers can easily gain access to the organization’s information technology (IT) system; as a result, they are able to coverup their tracks by making the threats undetectable. The situation can get worse if such employees have administrative rights of entry into the organization’s IT system. As a result of internal threats, the organization can los e crucial files that are important in carrying out important business operations (Nyheim, McFadden, Connolly, Paiva, 2005).  On the other hand, external threats are carried out by attackers who are not employees of the organization. Most external attackers are malicious users who carry out the attacks by gaining access to the organization’s networks without the assistance of the employees. External threats are carried out by scanning and collecting data with the intention of causing damage to it. External threats are mostly detected through thouroughly scrutinizing all the firewall logs that exist in the IT system (Nyheim, McFadden, Connolly, Paiva, 2005). External threats are divided into two categories: structured and unstructured types. Structured external threats are carried out by people whose main intention is to damage important information concerning the organization, its employees and its clientele. The main inspirations behind structured external threats are ter rorism, politics, greed, and racial intolerance. These attackers comprise people who are highly skilled in up to date network attack methods, which they use to gain access to an organization’s system. An unstructured external threat is almost similar to a structured one only that it is normally done by unskilled attackers, whose motivation is to gain fame by attempting to hack into websites of either individuals or organizations (Nyheim, McFadden, Connolly, Paiva, 2005). Security Procedures Against Privacy Threats There are a number of procedures and resources within the organization that need to be protected against network threats. The resources include spywares, inventories, and passwords. Spyware refers to computer software designed in such a way that it is able to collect users’ personal information or change the users’ computer settings without their consent. Spyware applications are transmitted into an organization’s computer through an infected f ile, which is normally downloaded from a website. A computer can be protected against spyware by installing an anti-spyware application. Anti-spyware applications scans file downloads to ensure that none of the files contain such threats (Nyheim, McFadden, Connolly, Paiva, 2005).Advertising Looking for assessment on it? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Inventory is another resource within the organization that needs protection against threats. There are two types of inventories in the organization: software inventory and network inventory. The two inventories can be protected by installing Lansweeper into the organization’s computers and the entire IT system. Lansweeper, when installed into the system, enables inventory software to detect the applications installed on the system, and ascertains when the installations should happen. Lansweeper also enables network inventory to detect hardware appliances installed on the organization’s computers. Networks supported by Lansweeper also scan windows devices and other appliances such as IP enabled devices (Nyheim, McFadden, Connolly, Paiva, 2005). Lastly, passwords can also be used to protect the resources, which are kept in the organization’s computer systems. Passwords comprise words or numbers that are only known to the user and which they use to access their co mputer. Passwords are used to enhance system security and user privacy by preventing unauthorized people from gaining access to personal computers. The use of passwords also helps to prevent unauthorized actions, which compromise the security of the IT system. Passwords also help IT management personnel to protect the system from unauthorized disclosure or unauthorized alteration of the data kept in the system (Tesone, 2006). Conclusion The paper talks about the security and privacy issues affecting the hotel reservation system at the Holiday Inn. The privacy issues are caused by internal factors, such as malicious users, and external factors, such as hackers and viruses. Apart from the privacy issues, the paper also unveils the internal and external threats, which adversely affect the organization’s resources. Lastly, the paper recommends spyware protection, use of passwords and inventory enhancements, as some of the ways The Holiday Inn can use to protect its resources and private details of its clients. References Nyheim, P. D., McFadden, F. M., Connolly, D. J., Paiva, A. J. (2005). Technology strategies for the hospitality industry. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Tesone, D. V. (2006). Hospitality information systems and e-commerce. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Sons. This assessment on Internal and External Security for The Holiday Inn Online Reservation System was written and submitted by user Desiree Holder to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Biography of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Philosopher and Mathematician

Biography of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Philosopher and Mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a prominent German philosopher and mathematician. Though Leibniz was a polymath who contributed many works to many different fields, he is best known for his contributions to math, in which he invented differential and integral calculus independently of Sir Isaac Newton. In philosophy, Leibniz is known for his contributions on a wide range of subjects, including â€Å"optimism†- the idea that the current world is the best of all possible worlds, and was created by a freely thinking God who chose this for a good reason. Fast Facts: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Known For: Philosopher and mathematician known for a number of important contributions to mathematics and philosophy, such as the modern binary system, a widely used calculus notation, and the idea that everything exists for a reason.Born: July 1, 1646 in Leipzig, GermanyDied: November 14, 1716 in Hanover, GermanyParents: Friedrich Leibniz and Catharina SchmuckEducation: Leipzig University, University of Altdorf, University of Jena Early Life and Career Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in Leipzig, Germany on July 1, 1646 to Friedrich Leibniz, a professor of moral philosophy, and Catharina Schmuck, whose father was a law professor. Though Leibniz attended elementary school, he was mostly self-taught from the books in his father’s library (who had died in 1652 when Leibniz was six). While young, Leibniz immersed himself in history, poetry, math, and other subjects, gaining knowledge in many different fields. In 1661, Leibniz, who was 14, began studying law at the University of Leipzig and was exposed to the works of thinkers such as Renà © Descartes, Galileo, and Francis Bacon. While there, Leibniz also attended summer school at the University of Jena, where he studied mathematics. In 1666, he finished his law studies and applied to become a doctorate student in law at Leipzig. Because of his young age, however, he was refused the degree. This caused Leibniz to leave the University of Leipzig and earn the degree the following year at the University of Altdorf, whose faculty were so impressed with Leibniz that they invited him to become a professor despite his youth. Leibniz, however, declined and opted instead to pursue a career in public service. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. United States public domain Leibniz’s Tenure in Frankfurt and Mainz, 1667-1672 In 1667, Leibniz entered the service of the Elector of Mainz, who tasked him to help revise the Corpus Juris- or body of laws- of the electorate. During this time, Leibniz also worked to reconcile Catholic and Protestant parties and encouraged Christian European countries to work together to conquer non-Christian lands, instead of waging war on each other. For example, if France left Germany alone, then Germany could help France in conquering Egypt. Leibniz’s action was inspired by France’s king Louis XIV, who seized some German towns in Alsace-Lorraine in 1670. (This â€Å"Egyptian Plan† would be ultimately passed on, although Napoleon unwittingly used a similar plan over a century later.) Paris, 1672-1676 In 1672, Leibniz went to Paris to discuss these ideas more, staying there until 1676. While at Paris, he met a number of mathematicians like Christiaan Huygens, who made many discoveries in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and horology. Leibniz’s interest in mathematics has been credited to this period of travel. He quickly advanced in the subject, figuring out the core of some of his ideas on calculus, physics, and philosophy. Indeed, in 1675 Leibniz figured out the foundations of integral and differential calculus independently from Sir Isaac Newton. In 1673, Leibniz also made a diplomatic trip to London, where he showed a calculating machine that he had developed called the Stepped Reckoner, which could add, subtract, multiply, and divide. In London, he also became a fellow of the Royal Society, an honor awarded to individuals who have made substantial contributions to science or math. Hanover, 1676-1716 In 1676, upon the death of the Elector of Mainz, Leibniz moved to Hanover, Germany, and was placed in charge of the library of the Elector of Hanover. It Hanover- the place that would serve as his residence for the rest of his life- Leibniz wore many hats. For instance, he served as a mining engineer, an advisor, and a diplomat. As a diplomat, he continued to push for the reconciliation of the Catholic and Lutheran churches in Germany by writing papers that would resolve the views of both Protestants and Catholics. The last part of Leibniz’s life was plagued by controversy- with the most notable being in 1708, when Leibniz was accused of plagiarizing Newton’s calculus despite having developed the math independently. Leibniz died in Hanover on November 14, 1716. He was 70 years old. Leibniz never married, and his funeral was only attended by his personal secretary. Legacy Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University of Hannover, Germany. Moment Editorial / Getty Images Leibniz was considered a great polymath and he made many important contributions to philosophy, physics, law, politics, theology, math, psychology, and other fields. He may be most well known, however, for some of his contributions to math and philosophy. When Leibniz died, he had written between 200,000 to 300,000 pages and more than 15,000 letters of correspondence to other intellectuals and important politicians- including many notable scientists and philosophers, two German emperors, and Tsar Peter the Great. Contributions to Math Modern Binary System Leibniz invented the modern binary system, which uses the symbols 0 and 1 to represent numbers and logical statements. The modern binary system is integral to the functioning and operation of computers, even though Leibniz discovered this system a few centuries prior to the invention of the first modern computer. It should be noted, however, that Leibniz did not discover binary numbers themselves. Binary numbers were already used, for example, by the ancient Chinese, whose use of binary numbers was acknowledged in Leibniz’s paper that introduced his binary system (â€Å"Explanation of Binary Arithmetic,† which was published in 1703). Calculus Leibniz developed a complete theory of integral and differential calculus independently of Newton, and was the first one to publish on the subject (1684 as opposed to Newton’s 1693), though both thinkers seem to have developed their ideas at the same time. When the Royal Society of London, whose president at the time was Newton, decided who developed calculus first, they gave credit for the discovery of calculus to Newton, while credit for the publication on calculus went to Leibniz. Leibniz was also accused of plagiarizing Newton’s calculus, which left a permanent negative mark on his career. Leibniz’s calculus differed from Newton’s mainly in notation. Interestingly, many students of calculus today have come to prefer Leibniz’s notation. For example, many students today use â€Å"dy/dx† to indicate a derivative of y with respect to x, and an â€Å"S†-like symbol to indicate an integral. Newton, on the other hand, placed a dot over a variable, like á º , to indicate a derivative of y with respect to s, and did not have a consistent notation for integration. Matrices Leibniz also rediscovered a method of arranging linear equations into arrays or matrices, which makes manipulating those equations much easier. A similar method had first been discovered by Chinese mathematicians years earlier, but had fallen into abandonment. A statue of Leibniz at Leipzig University. claudiodivizia / Getty Images. Contributions to Philosophy Monads and Philosophy of Mind In the 17th century, Renà © Descartes put forward the notion of dualism, in which the non-physical mind was separate from the physical body. This sparked the question of how exactly the mind and body are related to one another. In response, some philosophers said that the mind could only be explained in terms of physical matter. Leibniz, on the other hand, believed that the world is made of â€Å"monads,† which are not made of matter. Each monad, in turn, has its own individual identity, as well as its own properties that determine how they are perceived. The monads, furthermore, are arranged by God- who is also a monad- to be together in perfect harmony. This laid down Leibniz’s views on optimism. Optimism Leibniz’s most famous contribution to philosophy may be â€Å"optimism,† the idea that the world we live in- which encompasses everything that exists and has existed- is the â€Å"best of all possible worlds.† The idea is based on the assumption that God is a good and rational being, and has considered many other worlds in addition to this one before choosing this one to come into existence. Leibniz explained evil by stating that it may result in a greater good, even if an individual experiences negative consequences. He further believed that everything existed for a reason. And humans, with their limited viewpoint, cannot see the greater good from their restricted vantage point. Leibniz’s ideas were popularized by the French writer Voltaire, who did not agree with Leibniz that humans are living in the â€Å"best of all possible worlds.† Voltaire’s satirical book Candide ridicules this notion by introducing the character Pangloss, who believes that everything is for the best despite all of the negative things going on in the world. Sources Garber, Daniel. â€Å"Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1646–1716).† Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Routledge, www.rep.routledge.com/articles/biographical/leibniz-gottfried-wilhelm-1646-1716/v-1.Jolley, Nicholas, editor. The Cambridge Companion to Leibniz. Cambridge University Press, 1995.Mastin, Luke. â€Å"17th Century Mathematics - Leibniz.† The Story of Mathematics, Storyofmathematics.com, 2010, www.storyofmathematics.com/17th_leibniz.html.Tietz, Sarah. â€Å"Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm.† ELS, Oct. 2013.

Monday, February 24, 2020

Wireless fan (high level design) report Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Wireless fan (high level design) report - Essay Example This document, once it is approved, serves as the basis for: The scope of this project is to architect, design and create Wireless fan. The fan has four switches one of them is turn on/off (A), and the others which are (B,C,D) to change the speed levels of the fan. So I have: The wireless has an exposed antenna. This antenna serves the purpose of boosting transmission of the trigger towards movement of the fan. The components would be light and not jammed because there is meager use of connecting wires. It is vital to note that the switches will possess an indirect link to the decoder. This is to enable the usability of switches. In addition, the switches will possess an angle of 90 degrees to the motor. This is to enable the compatibility of the switches to the motor fan. It is vital to note of the idea that the wireless fan system possesses two core components. These two components have more than a functional separation. The core parts possess a physical and functional separation between the sending and receiving components. This has a first antenna and a second antenna that link to transmit signals between the same. The decoder is segregated to send and receive signals through the system of antennae. The antennae have a relationship between the two links in a sense that the two signals shift between entities. Therefore, the decoder connects to the motor that rotates to trigger the movement of the blades. The system has four switches that connect to the four sections of the decoder. The decoder connects to the antenna and the LDE. In this sense, the antenna sends a signal to the receiving antenna. The antenna transmits a signal that triggers three levels of the decoder. The decoder, thus, transmits a signal to the motor that